The Extremes of Resolution – a Year with the GFX 100S and a review of the 120mm f4 GF Macro lens

Camera & Technology

August 28, 2022 ·

Dan Wells
Yes, you can use a GFX 100S as a wildlife camera, even with a macro lens on it!

There has been no Fujifilm GFX news at all since the fall – I’m anxiously awaiting the 20-35mm zoom lens. On the other hand, my GFX 100S has been a constant companion for a year now, and it’s worth updating the camera review and reviewing the 120mm GF Macro lens (Fujifilm loaner that I’ve had for quite a while). My three-lens GFX kit is probably going to settle out at 32-64mm, 120mm Macro and either the 23mm, which I’ve used quite a bit and like a lot, or the new 20-35mm. I’d love the extra wide-angle range on the 20-35mm (remember that a millimeter of range is a LOT more significant at the wide end), and the compositional zoom is also significant. Wide angle requires very careful composition, and there are times when a 25mm gets an annoying tree branch out that 23mm leaves in – and stepping forward to exclude the branch means you’re standing in the lake. Admittedly, I sometimes stand in the lake to get that shot!

My (hypothetical) fourth GFX lens would be a long telephoto. That sounds harder than it is – format coverage tends not to be an issue for long lenses. The opposite is true for wide lenses – it’s hard to get a wide-angle lens to cover a big sensor, and the result is going to be a big lens. The Fujinon GFX 20-35mm isn’t going to look anything like a full-frame 20-35mm, and it will even be considerably larger than a full-frame 16-35mm with a similar maximum angle of view.

A Mamiya 300mm f2.8 for 645. It’s only about 20% heavier than the latest Canon EF 300mm f2.8 despite a built-in metal hood included in the weight, and it’s actually lighter than the similar lens Olympus made for (pre-Micro) 4/3.

Since coverage tends not to be an issue for long lenses, Mamiya and Pentax medium format telephotos looked a lot like 35mm telephotos of similar focal length (NOT similar effective focal length – a 600mm lens for 6×7 will look a lot like a 600mm lens of the same speed for 35mm, not a 300mm lens with a similar field of view). Even the behemoth Pentax 67 800mm f4 (!!!!) would be similar in size to a 35mm lens of similar specs, if one existed. The Canon EF 1200mm f5.6 lets in a similar amount of light, and is just as heavy, although a slightly different shape. I seem to recall an experiment many years ago when someone remounted a 300mm f2.8 that was originally built for a 35mm film camera (I think it was an older manual-focus Canon or Nikon lens) to mount on a view camera. I believe it covered 4×5” just fine wide open, and it may even have covered 8×10” when stopped down. The only modification, apart from changing the mount, was to remove some baffles that deliberately reduced the coverage for the sake of eliminating reflection inside the camera body.

Yes, this 800mm f4 (!!!!!!!!) for Pentax 67 is absolutely huge,
But it’s not notably bigger or heavier than this Canon 1200mm f5.6 for full-frame with similar light-gathering capabilities.

At the other extreme, long telephotos for small sensors don’t tend to be unusually compact or inexpensive. The original (pre Micro 43) 4/3 mount featured a 300mm f2.8 lens, and it was actually heavier and more expensive than Canon and Nikon 300mm f2.8 lenses for full-frame (and heavier than the Mamiya 300mm f2.8 for 645). If you ignore effective aperture, they ARE small for their effective focal length, but including effective aperture tends to even that out. A Micro 43 150mm f2.8 will be much smaller and lighter than a full-frame 300mm f2.8 (150mm is short enough that it may even be marginally smaller and lighter than a full-frame 150mm f2.8). On the other hand, a 150mm f1.4 for Micro 43, which would be more similar in depth of field and noise, will be the size and weight of a full-frame 300mm f2.8, and it would probably cost more because it would be built in much smaller numbers. Fujifilm’s 200mm f2 for the X system is a close match to a full-frame 300mm f2.8, and it’s similar in size, weight and cost.

The other important GFX news is what’s NOT coming particularly soon from Canon, Nikon and Sony. Rumors of very high-resolution full-frame cameras appear to have dissipated. There have been several supposed spec sheet leaks of the A7r V, the most likely first candidate for a super-high resolution sensor, and all suggest that it will retain the A7r IV’s 61 MP resolution. Most of the improvements seem to center around speed and video, not chasing Fujifilm for ultimate image quality. The leaks are discussing a “redesigned” sensor, but it seems to focus on readout speed. That’s probably a good move on Sony’s part – GFX is a niche system, and Sony will probably sell more units by focusing on a high-resolution, but versatile camera than they would by going after something specialized that has a big sensor size advantage.

Unless Sony lets someone else (Nikon?) introduce their flagship full-frame sensor without using it themselves for a couple of years, this seems to push a 100 MP-class Sony full-frame sensor out to 2024 or so, with the next redesign of the A7r series. It would actually keep with the cadence of the A7r series, since the A7r III was an improved version of the A7r II while the A7r II and A7r IV featured fully new sensors. I just don’t see Sony releasing a 61 MP body, then letting Nikon use a 100 MP sensor less than a year later. This DOES raise the question of what sensor Fujifilm might use in a 40 MP APS-C X-H2 – a full-frame version of whatever that is would be close to 100 MP, and that camera is officially confirmed by Fujifilm for later this year, meaning that they already have the sensor in hand. If there’s an APS-C Sony sensor nearing release with that kind of resolution, where’s the full-frame version? Or is Fujifilm defying years of precedent and buying a sensor from someone other than Sony?

The other candidate for a very high-resolution full-frame body is Canon, who make their own sensors. There are persistent rumors of a really high resolution Canon body coming in the next year, but it’s been “next year” since at least 2020. My best guess, and it’s only a guess, is that we get some kind of pre-announcement between late this year and the middle of next year, with the actual announcement later next year and cameras readily available in early 2024? They almost have to pre-announce ahead of everybody using Sony sensors because the resolution of the EOS-R3 disappointed so many people.

It’s also important to remember that resolution does not equal image quality. New flagship Sony sensors rarely disappoint, but the Canon 5Ds/5DsR sensor had serious dynamic range and noise issues, and was really a specialized studio sensor that worked best under controlled lighting. While it reached 50 MP long before anyone else got there, it actually underperformed Sony’s 36 MP sensor from three years earlier under most conditions. Canon’s newer 45 MP sensor is excellent and much more versatile than its predecessor. I’d give it 50-50 on whether we get a “big R5 sensor” – a general purpose sensor that eclipses the A7r IV in most aspects of image quality – or something more like the 5Ds sensor, with real weaknesses outside of a narrow range of uses. In a best case, we could see a camera with overall image quality in most circumstances superior to anything except medium format digital and 8×10” film, while a worst case would be a studio portrait and still-life camera that doesn’t do as well outdoors.

This is a 200MP cell phone sensor! It’s not going to have actual image quality anywhere NEAR any full-frame (or larger) camera, despite the high resolution. It’ll be lucky to be similar to a 1” sensor found in drones, or a Micro 43 sensor.

In a more general sense, increasing resolution in the same sensor area is difficult if you care about image quality. The continuing struggles of Micro 43 are an example of this – for years, there was a question of whether the Same Old Sensor exhibited class-trailing image quality because of its age or its density? It was denser than anything else used in an interchangeable lens camera, but it was also the oldest sensor still in use, a technological generation or two behind nearly everything else on the market. We’ve seen not one but two brand-new Micro 43 sensors in 2022, and both still trail the market in image quality. It may be possible to build very dense sensors with excellent raw image quality, but whomever (quite possibly two different suppliers) supplies sensors to OM System and Panasonic has just failed – those cameras have plenty of other interesting features around speed, image stabilization and video, but they retain the same old Micro 43 image quality. A 100 MP full-frame sensor would be about as dense as the GH6 sensor, and significantly denser than the OM-1 sensor.

On the other side of the sensor area divide, DPReview has added the 150 MP Phase One IQ4 to their studio test scene database (actually, they did that a while ago, but I only noticed recently). The big Phase is the only camera that should beat 100 MP GFX image quality, and theory certainly says it should – it uses a version of the same sensor with 150% of the area and 150% of the pixels. It is reputed to have somewhat better supporting hardware and really superb over-the-sensor filtration (and it should for the price – it’s approximately six times as expensive as a GFX 100S, depending on the configuration). Looking at the studio test scene, what strikes me is not how far the Phase pulls ahead – it is how close they are. There are only a couple of areas of the scene where the Phase noticeably outresolves the GFX, and even there it’s minor. Both very noticeably outresolve the A7r IV, and they seem to be outresolving the test chart itself.

On much of the test chart, all of today’s most resolving cameras outresolve the chart. The playing cards, for example, are no longer a particularly useful test in most ways – even a relatively low-resolving modern camera will pick up most of the detail we’re used to looking for in the card backs. A Panasonic GH6 (one of the most detail-challenged cameras of recent years) will resolve everything we normally look for except the stars in the area surrounding the circles. The only current camera I could find that DOESN’T resolve most of the card backs is the video-optimized 12 MP Sony A7S III.

Interestingly, the Phase and the GFX pick up something on those cards that I never even knew was there – there is an extremely subtle printing stipple around the bicycling angel (not the birds or butterflies – those are a standard test that resolves on many cameras). On most cameras, including the Z7 II, the stipple doesn’t resolve at all – that’s a solid blue background. On the A7r IV, there is a bit of subtle patterning visible as a color variation. The Phase and the GFX are picking up the individual dots in the background (which I’d never seen before).

On the converging horizontal lines in the test chart, the Phase, GFX, A7r IV and Z7 II all go well past the 45 mark, an elite performance. The Z7 II is, unsurprisingly, the first to go – color aliasing creeps in around the 46, and we lose the distinction between lines by 48. The A7r IV gets tantalizingly close to the end of the chart, although it actually shows color aliasing a tiny bit earlier than the Z7 II – aliasing around 44, near extinction around 49. Both the Phase and the Fujifilm comfortably outresolve the chart without aliasing. Both the A7r IV and the Panasonic S1R can outresolve the target in pixel-shift mode.

The very fine details in the engraved areas (the Austrian 20 shilling note slightly to the left at lower center, the engraving of a group of people above center at left and the bearded man at right center are interesting. These are the finest lines I can find in the test scene, and even the A7r IV renders much of them as shades of gray (which is what the engraver intended – they are using extremely fine lines to trick the eye into seeing tone – you can see the effect on a dollar bill or most other currencies). Both the Fujifilm and the Phase are resolving the individual lines through most of the engravings. What is especially interesting is that there are very few areas where the Phase is picking up MORE individual lines that the Fujifilm blurs to gray.
I originally thought that the patches of blue and white fabric at upper left and lower right were differentiating the Phase from the Fujifilm – the Phase was picking out the individual stitches in most of the pattern, while the Fujifilm was only getting them in lighter areas (no non medium format camera does much with the stitches, although either an S1R or an A7r IV in pixel shift mode (only) will begin to pick them out). I then tried zooming my browser window in, only to discover that the Fujifilm was ALSO getting the stitches. The only place where I can see a real, clear difference between the Phase and the Fujifilm is in the very finest parts of the Air Force test targets in the extreme corners of the studio scene. The Phase sees slightly farther into the Air Force target than even a GFX 100S does (there are a few fine lines that even the Phase can’t split, meaning that this tiny piece of the target may have resolution for a camera beyond the Phase).

The upshot is that Fujifilm and Phase are essentially outresolving the target, but that nothing else is, including pixel-shifted cameras. The two “big shifters” – the A7r IV and S1r in pixel shift modes – fall somewhere comfortably in between the best full-frame cameras (including themselves in non-shifted modes) and the medium format champions. How far is the Phase ahead of the GFX? Perhaps not all that far (almost certainly not worth six times the price and the extra hassle for most applications), but that will take a better target to see.

What initially looked like a test that could show how big the differences were between the Fujifilm I know well and the exotic Phase One that I’ve never tested instead proved to be primarily a test of the test chart itself (among ultra-high resolving cameras). The chart will easily split 100+ MP medium format from anything else, showing that there IS a real difference – the difference I’ve seen in 12,000 images. What it won’t do, except in very limited parts, is split the Phase from the Fujifilm. Somewhere between the best of full-frame in pixel-shift mode and the GFX 100S, the test chart runs out of room. Will the next generation of full-frame cameras also beat the chart?

Is it possible that nobody knows how to make a sensor as dense as 100 MP full-frame with satisfactory image quality for a high-end camera yet? Is the limit, if we’re approaching one, engineering or actual physics? Image sensors are nowhere near as dense as many other chips, but I wonder about the quantum nature of photons – are sensors trying to count single photons, or very small numbers of photons, per pixel in shadow areas of the image on small-pixel chips? You can’t have 3.1415 photons… Yes, cell phone sensors use much smaller pixels, but they are using computational photography to reconstruct an image, rather than displaying real data. This wouldn’t work as well for a wider variety of images and applications – phone makers know that many of their images will be of friends and family, and furthermore, many will be downsized for social media.

I usually use my A7r IV for wildlife, but not always… Flocks are great GFX territory.

I wouldn’t let rumors of 100 MP full-frame cameras dissuade anyone from buying into GFX at this point. It looks like 2024 is the most likely year we see such a camera, and its image quality is a question mark when it DOES come. If you need ultimate resolution and print big enough and frequently enough to see the difference, the GFX system is here now, and with over 12,000 images on my GFX 100S with three different lenses, my feelings about the image quality are still the same as they were when I first reviewed a loaner camera. It is remarkable, comparable only to 8×10” film. I can see the difference on 16×24” prints, even against the best of full-frame, and it’s there even at 12×18”, although THAT would take close inspection of prints side by side.

Landscape is, of course, one of the GFX’s greatest strengths. There’s a ton of detail in that “black” section of the driftwood log, even if you can’t see it on the web

Thom Hogan, whom I consider to be one of the smartest people writing about photography today, recently recommended some much lower resolution numbers for many users. I don’t think he’s wrong, but that we’re addressing quite different use cases. He is saying that somewhere around 4K (between 3840×2160 and 4096×2160 pixels, both frequently used numbers for “4K”) is all we need for the vast majority of how we use photographs. He goes on to say that he gets this number from essentially all available display screens – and he’s right. Screens larger than 4K are vanishingly rare (Apple’s 5K displays in some Intel-based iMacs and a couple of external monitors are about the most common case). 8K televisions exist, but they’re expensive, a small share of the market today, and an even tinier share of what’s installed (since TVs last a decade or more). 8K projectors are vanishingly rare – the MOST practical current model uses pixel-shifting to reach 8K, weighs 55 lbs, has 2500 lumens of output (enough for a good-sized home theater, but not an auditorium) and costs $15,000. Most photographers travelling with a slide show should be bringing a good 4K projector, and many camera clubs and similar venues may have them, but you’re not going to travel with an 8K projector or find one outside of a few very high-end museum venues for a few years. When I’m speaking of resolutions well above 4K, I’m assuming that a large percentage of the Luminous Landscape audience prints, rather than only displaying images on screen.

For printing (as Hogan admits), 4K makes only a very small print. Given the tests I’ve done that show that a printer’s double-resolution modes CAN make a difference, 4K only makes a print less than 5×7” at maximum quality. Even 24 MP, which he says makes an “excellent 13×19” print”, makes about a 6.5×10” print at 600 dpi. It’s exactly those smaller prints where you might want to use double-resolution modes – you won’t notice it viewing a print on the wall from 6 feet away, but you will with a smaller print in hand. To get up to 16×20” at 600 dpi takes a 100 MP camera! No, that doesn’t mean that only 100 MP cameras are worthy of 16×20” (or 16×24”) prints, but it DOES mean that there is some marginal benefit to the increased resolution on prints in that size range.

One of my favorite printer test images. it’s about an 80 MP crop of a 102 MP GFX 100S image – I’ve printed this on everything from T-shirts to 44” wide Platine and 54” wide canvas, and I haven’t come close to running out of resolution from the camera or the 32-64mm lens.

In “The Proof is in the Printing” some months ago, I played “spot the GFX” with a wide range of print sizes, and asking several different observers. It was easily differentiable (to observers with varying skills) from a 61 MP A7r IV starting with 16×20” prints, and it was differentiable under close inspection at 12×18”. Both the 100 MP and 61 MP cameras were clearly differentiable from a 26 MP camera at 12×18”. The 26 MP prints looked excellent at 12×18”, and very good at 16×24”, unless seen next to a higher resolution print. At 24×36”, no contest – the GFX print has substantial extra detail over a 61 MP print, and a 26 MP print begins to look a little fuzzy even without a comparison print from a higher resolution sensor. At 40×60” (and this is new since “The Proof is in the Printing” – it comes from playing with some LARGE printers at Epson’s Carson Tech Center), the GFX stands alone – even a full-frame pixel monster begins to look fuzzy, and I wouldn’t push any 24 MP class camera that far on a high-detail subject. I haven’t used any of the new 33 MP class cameras, so it’s only an educated guess that something like an A7 IV and maybe even an EOS-R7 (density issues putting 33 MP on APS-C?) will perform somewhere in between a 24-26 MP class camera and a 45 MP one on larger prints.

Thom Hogan is absolutely correct for screen display using current and near-future technologies, but printing is another matter. The other consideration is that 8K displays will eventually show up in greater numbers, and they’ll require 40+ MP for full resolution display… My best guess about widespread 8K adoption is 5-10 years until we find TVs and monitors in enough places to worry about them, and until photographers might travel with 8K projectors (which will still be uncommon in venues), although we’ll see it significantly sooner in certain specialized applications (images for institutional display on an installed 8K TV?). For the Luminous Landscape audience, concerned about maximum image quality, I would try to be shooting landscapes and similar subjects over 8K now, for current printing and future display requirements, as much as possible. Any full-frame pixel monster will comfortably clear 8K. What about the current crop of 20-33 MP cameras? No, they’re not 8K, but they come with other benefits (speed, cost, compactness) that may be more important for certain types of photography, and are very often more important for video.

The GFX 100S is a reasonably-sized camera that handles like a midsize DSLR, with excellent image stabilization that allows it to be used handheld, yet it’s also an 8×10” field camera. No, its battery life isn’t the best on the market – that big sensor sucks power and I’m lucky to get 300 images over a couple of days of landscape shooting from a single battery– but I remind myself that I’d be lucky to get 10 images worth of 8×10” film in my pack. If I’m out for a week, I carry all four of my batteries in my backpack pocket to offer 1200 images, avoiding a mule train with 600 8×10” film holders. No, it’s not the fastest camera on the market – I use 16-bit mode (it makes a slight, but noticeable difference at ISO 50 and 100, and I’m too lazy to turn it off at higher ISOs unless I really need more speed), and that makes it a single-shot camera.

It’s ready to push the button again as soon as I let go, though – an 8×10” would take a couple of minutes to change the film holder. Even in 14-bit mode, it’s a 5 fps camera, slow for 2022 – but VERY fast for 8×10”. I’ve shot wildlife with it, using the 120mm Macro lens, and it’s fast enough with care. I shot a dear friend’s wedding with it, and it needed more shot discipline than something fast would have – but it worked very well – remember that wedding photographers used 6×6 cm Hasselblads for decades, those aren’t exactly fast, and they only get 12 (or 24 if you use 220 film) shots per back. While swapping backs is really quick if you have another one with film left, reloading a back takes a couple of minutes and was one of a photographers’ assistant’s primary duties!

It’s also a comfortable camera to use. I was very surprised to see Lloyd Chambers’ recent comments that he prefers the handling of his Sony cameras over his GFX. Handling is certainly a matter of taste, and I can’t say he’s wrong any more than he can say I am, but I personally far prefer the GFX’s handling over any Sony. To my taste, Fujifilm and Nikon win the handling contest, then Canon, then Sony. To be fair, recent Sonys are much improved over, say, an original A7r that handled like an RX1r with the lens sawed off and a mount glued on while the viewfinder was duct-taped to the top (of course an original A7r WAS an RX1r with the lens sawed off, a mount glued on and a viewfinder duct-taped to the top). Sony had no idea that their parts-bin project was going to be a huge success.

The grip on the GFX just feels better to me, the dials are in more natural places and the menus (while not perfect) are far better than Sony’s older system in my A7r IV and everything that came before it. The newer Sony menus in the few most recent cameras are much improved, and to be fair to Lloyd Chambers, he was largely talking about the A1, which has the newer menus. I haven’t used a new-menu Sony enough to say whether I prefer those menus or Fujifilm’s. I’ve used a couple of them, but only review loaners, and I have many thousands of images on both X and GFX cameras, so I’m really used to Fujifilm idiosyncrasies.

All of my other comments, though, are based on extensive use of both systems – I own an A7r IV with many thousands of shots on it, which is my primary wildlife camera, and I prefer Fujifilm’s grips and dials by a significant margin. Surprisingly, Fujifilm also has better image stabilization. My Sony DOES have far better battery life – I have to remind myself when picking up the Fujifilm after a day out with the Sony that the battery doesn’t last forever and that I’d better have a spare. I’ve gotten over 1000 shots out of an A7r IV battery – of course, that’s a different kind of shooting than I tend to do with the GFX, with many more sequences and much less downtime.

Fujifilm’s 120mm f4 Macro. It really DOES look like a 1990s zoom lens.
But does any 1990s zoom lens have this many weather seals?

I’ve had the Fujifilm GF 120mm f4 Macro around all winter, and it’s really come into its own this spring. I’ve been doing a lot of flowers and the like with it, as New England awakens from its slumber. Macro lenses tend to be extremely sharp, and this one’s no exception. Of course, it’s attached to the best sensor in the world, which helps. I’ve also been using it as a portrait lens. It serves admirably in that role, being a nearly perfect focal length on medium format. It’s an f4 lens, which seems slow for a portrait lens – but remember that it’s a GF lens, so it has shallower depth of field than you’d think.

Classis GFX 120 Macro – the vibrance of spring!


It has a REALLY nice rendering style, both of in-focus areas and beautifully smooth transitions to out of focus. I love its bokeh, although many lenses in this range are nice. Between lens, sensor and color science, it has about the best color of any lens I’ve used (although that’s very largely a function of the GFX system as a whole). One of the few lenses I’ve used that has the “punch” of the 120mm is the 85mm f1.4 Zeiss Otus I had in for review a couple of years ago. The Otus is a special lens and much faster than the Fujinon, but it’s over twice the price of the Fujinon, manual focus and not weather sealed. It goes to 45 MP on a Z7 (II), Z9 or D850, or to 61 MP if you use an off-brand adapter to put it on an A7r IV, while the Fujinon, of course, works with a 100 MP sensor. I don’t know of a really high-end adapter to get the Otus on a Sony body, while F to Z is a Nikon FTZ made by the camera manufacturer. See “Of Zen and Zeiss” for the full review of the Otus. I don’t really know how to describe it in words, but I find the 120mm to be “smoother” than the also excellent 32-64mm f4 Fujinon.

Lovely color…

One enormous positive about the 120mm on a 100 MP GFX camera is the resolution of the system as a whole. The lens will capture a 66x88mm area – it’s a 1:2 near-macro lens on a 33x44mm sensor. The native 300 dpi print size of the 100 MP sensor is nearly 30×40 inches, and it will go to 44×60 inches EASILY. It’ll go beyond that, but what printer are you going to find that is wider than 44”? There are quite a few at Epson’s Carson Tech Center, but you probably don’t have one in your studio! It’s remarkably easy to make a print that is more than ten times life size in linear terms (100x life size by area). Very little else will do that with autofocus and image stabilization.

It’s a big, heavy lens for a medium-speed 120mm (although it’s actually lighter than the much faster, but smaller format 85mm Otus with a similar field of view), but that’s the price of quality, close focusing and medium format… Think “older SLR 70-200mm f2.8, before they got really big”, or “current 70-200mm f4”, and you won’t be far off in size, long, skinny shape or weight. It has an aesthetic that reminds me of a lens from the 1990s or early 2000s, with a long, textured barrel that is almost entirely given over to the focusing ring.. You almost expect the big rotating focus ring to be a push/pull zoom, but it’s a prime lens. It handles very well for a big lens, not being especially front-heavy. It’s heavy enough that I’d never backpack with it, except on very short trips (I DO backpack with the GFX and the 32-64mm – the image quality is incredibly addictive!), but it’s not a bad lens to hike with at all. I take it on 10-mile day hikes routinely (it’s also about the size and weight of a full Nalgene water bottle, and a water bottle doesn’t have nearly the same image quality)…

I use the 120mm to compress distances in the landscape, due to its longer-than-normal focal length.

One remarkable feature of the lens is just how well the image stabilization in the GFX 100S works with it. I routinely shoot it handheld as slow as 1/60 second, getting pixel-sharp results even in the near-macro range. When you consider that the resolution on the GFX 100S is approximately equivalent to 8×10” film, that’s a remarkable performance. Imagine trying to handhold an 8×10” Deardorff a couple of feet from the subject!

More GFX/120mm wildlife…

Surprisingly, I’ve even used the 120mm Macro as a wildlife lens. No, it’s not the lens, nor the camera, for animal portraits (other than pets or friendly cetaceans – even a wide-angle lens can be shockingly useful on whale watches, depending on the whales’ moods). On the other hand, some of my favorite wildlife images are of flocks of birds, and a 120mm lens on medium format is actually a good focal length for that. I was recently out along the Massachusetts coast, and captured some flocks of sandpipers I really like with the 120mm. I was very glad to have it with me, because my 32-64mm would not have been long enough. It’s a surprisingly quick focuser in a situation it wasn’t designed for, and the image stabilization is actually a little TOO good in one sense. It’s capable enough that I lost a few to subject motion because the viewfinder looked so stable and IS doesn’t slow birds down ☺. The image quality is impeccable, as has been true of everything I’ve tried on GFX. Seeing how well the 120mm did with flocks of birds makes me long for something really long for GFX, and, as mentioned above, it wouldn’t be that hard to do.

One does need to remember that it’s not a TRUE macro lens in the smaller-format sense of the word. Most small-format macro lenses are capable of 1:1 magnification (they’ll take a picture of a 24x36mm area on a full-frame camera). A few lenses will get even closer than that – Canon’s new 100mm macro reaches 1.4:1, and several of the Laowas and such can get even closer, to 2:1. Working distances will get absurdly short at that sort of magnification, and you’re dealing with highly magnified camera shake and subject movement. Beyond 1:1 macro is a really specialized game, involving stationary subjects and excellent camera support (and absolutely no wind if you’re outdoors). There’s a reason people like to put microscopes on granite tables!

This is a 1:2 lens, on a larger sensor, so it’ll take a picture of a 66x88mm area, which is a lot less close than a 1:1 lens on full-frame (a 24x36mm area). Think of some of the Sigma macro zooms of old, and you’re in the right ballpark. Quality-wise, it’s of course in an entirely different category from an old Sigma lens, but it can capture about the same subject area. Most of the GFX lenses only focus to 1:5 or thereabouts, capturing something like a 165x220mm area, so the 120mm gets MUCH closer. A lot of what we use a macro lens for in outdoor photography is more in the 1:2 or 1:3 range than the 1:1 true macro range – and the GFX 100S offers a lot of room for cropping, with the huge, sharp sensor!

While the 110mm f2 might be a BETTER portrait lens, the 120mm is a perfectly good one…

There are three Fujinons that share this focal length range – the 120mm f4 macro, the 110mm f2 portrait lens and the 100-200mm f5.6 zoom. They are all in the same size and weight range – right around a kilogram – and each offers a unique advantage – very fast, close focusing or zoom. One important differentiator for users of the original GFX 50S or the GFX 50R in particular is that the 110mm is not image stabilized, while the other two are. The GFX 100, 100S and 50S II are all stabilized bodies, so the lens-based stabilization matters less, but if you have an older body in your kit, that is an important consideration. All three are complex, modern designs with multiple exotic (aspheric and/or ED elements), as would be expected of a pricey medium-format lens.

There’s a ton of resolution in this single flower, and no other GF Fujinon would have gotten anywhere NEAR this close!

I find the close focusing useful enough that I am inclined to give up the extra flexibility of the 100-200mm for it. The two lenses are similar in size, although the 100-200mm is even longer and skinnier. The 100-200mm is cheaper, especially when (as now), it has a rebate on it and the 120mm does not. The 110mm is slightly more expensive, although absent major rebates, most GFX lenses occupy a relatively narrow price band between about $2000 and $2800. The zoom is at the bottom of that range, the 120mm near the middle, and the 110mm at the top. Rebates can affect their positioning within that band, and can knock the zoom below it (right now, the zoom is effectively $1500, although that includes a mail-in rebate).

When I look at my thousands of images with the 120mm, I find that extra length would have really helped on about 20% of them, and those can be cropped, given the quality of the GFX sensor. On the other hand, fully a third of my images use the close-focusing capability, which is not available with any other lens. I’m not enough of a portraitist for the 110mm f2 to be a consideration, although those who are should certainly look at it in this focal length range. While I am willing to give up the f2 aperture of the 110mm to gain close-focusing, the f5.6 maximum aperture of the zoom is a bit limiting (although the GFX sensor is so good that kicking up the ISO is an option).

The 120mm GF is a near-macro lens for outdoor and still-life work, not a copy lens for the smallest objects. A secondary use for macro lenses is to photograph small, flat objects like coins, mounted insects, and bits of ancient text. Museums love them for this purpose, and the GF 120mm really doesn’t get close enough for a lot of that kind of work (unless you’re willing to crop). It WILL capture book pages and all but the very smallest of artwork, and it’ll do a very (extremely) nice job of it if you respect depth of field – but “respect depth of field” is true of ALL copy work. It’s probably a great solution for universities, libraries and other users who might be doing copy work in the near-macro range, although with a very significant weakness at TRUE macro, because it’s not a 1:1 lens. I haven’t used extension tubes or bellows on it, but Jim Kasson (who tests these things as seriously as anyone) reports that he hasn’t found anything that will get it to 1:1 or beyond at very good quality. Extension tubes and the like seem to exacerbate field flatness issues that aren’t as evident at the lens’ native 1:2 reproduction ratio. Since I have used it almost entirely outdoors, I really don’t know how notable the field flatness issues might be in a completely different use.

One use photographers have for macro/copy lenses is scanning film. A really good digital sensor has resolution so far beyond most film that it’ll get all the resolution out of the film and then start capturing the grain. Although some film scanners have higher theoretical resolution than most digital cameras, the optics of anything short of a drum scanner aren’t going to be as good as a decent macro lens. While the 100 MP sensor is capable of scanning all the detail of pretty much any film of any size, the reproduction ratio is limiting.

It’s not the right solution for 35mm film, because the slide or negative will only take up about 1/6 of the image area, between the sensor being larger than the slide and the 1:2 lens that can’t really take extension tubes to get closer. The GFX is scanning about 3200 dpi on the film, since the negative will be roughly a 3200×4800 pixel crop from the much larger sensor. That’s only about a 16 MP scan. There are plenty of much cheaper ways of getting more than a 16 MP scan of a 35mm negative or transparency, and certain films will actually benefit from more. The film is unlikely to actually have more than 16 MP of information, but the grain won’t be perfectly aligned with the pixels, so oversampling is helpful.

Any full-frame pixel monster (36 MP or over) with a decent 1:1 macro lens WILL get all possible detail out of even the highest resolution 35mm film. A 61 MP camera like the A7r IV has the resolution of a 6000 dpi film scanner, which is as high as any (non-drum) film scanner ever got without interpolating or counting in only one direction. Even a 24 MP camera with a 1:1 lens will exceed what the GFX can do, because it can match the image area. For most films, a 24 MP camera is plenty (it’s the same resolution as a 4000 dpi film scanner, which can fully scan most film). If you have a lot of really slow black and white or transparency film (Tech Pan, Pan X, Velvia 50, etc. ) a 24 MP camera may not oversample by enough to get all the detail. The film itself probably has 12-16 MP of information at most, but the detail won’t line up exactly with the pixels – 5000-6000 dpi film scanners can get some info that 4000 dpi scanners miss under ideal conditions (very sharp film, excellent lens, no shake). If you have a lot of high-quality 35mm film to scan, an A7r IV with a top-end Sony or Sigma macro lens and a good light source and mounting system will guarantee every bit of information on the film, without the hassle of a drum scanner.

For medium format, the GFX with the 120mm gets closer to the task. 645 film will take up a bit less than half of the image area, and it’ll capture about 45 MP. Very few cameras will do better, because a 24x36mm camera with a 1:1 macro lens has to back off from its closest focus – it can’t capture more pixels than the sensor has, while the GFX can’t get close enough to use all of its pixels (with this lens – there are Rube Goldberg ways of mounting other lenses that can get closer – see Jim Kasson’s blog for details, since I haven’t tried or even seen any of them).

When image area is the limiting factor (the area being photographed is small enough that it has to be cropped), the 120mm is capturing about 3200 dpi on a 100 MP sensor. Is 3200 dpi enough to fully scan 645? Much of the time… The larger the film gets, the less resolution it has PER UNIT AREA. Really good 35mm lenses are better than just about any classic Hasselblad Zeiss, Mamiya or Bronica lens, and in a different world from anything cheaper in medium format. Medium format film is not held as flat as 35mm, except in the rare case of a vacuum back and 220 film. The film certainly doesn’t have 45 MP of information (10-25 MP?, depending on film, lens and camera), but 45 MP is cutting it close with oversampling in the case of a near-perfect original (slow black and white or transparency film with excellent technique). An A7r IV, which will have to crop to match the aspect ratio of the film, will do about as well as the GFX. 6×6 (or 6×7) cm is a similar case to 645 – the lens still won’t get close enough to fully use the sensor, but the image will be sufficiently oversampled unless almost everything is perfect. The GFX will pull ahead of the best full-frame options, because it keeps adding pixels while the full-frame camera has to crop more, especially with a 6×6 cm square original.

Once you get above 6×7 cm, the 120mm becomes a very good scanning lens (and the GFX a very, very good scanning camera). It’s very sharp at maximum magnification, and you only have to crop a little bit to capture a 6×9 cm negative or transparency. It’ll get well over 80 MP on a 6×9 cm image. 6×9 cm is generally a little looser than smaller medium formats, so 80+ MP will almost always be significantly oversampled . Will a 4000 dpi film scanner EVER extract more detail than the ~3200 dpi of scanning with the GFX? Probably not in the real world. it would take an original captured with a vacuum back, very slow film and a nearly perfect lens to even have that detail. Did a 6×9 cm vacuum back ever exist? I can’t find any evidence of one, and can say with some confidence that they were never common even if a few were made somewhere, sometime

It would take an excellent 4000 dpi scanner to capture any such detail that might be there. Any standard flatbed is going to be optically compromised enough that it isn’t really 4000 dpi. The Nikon Super Coolscan 9000 is a possibility, especially if used with a third party glass/fluid mount carrier – but I’d far rather have the dynamic range and color science of the GFX than have to deal with the nearly two decade old Nikon scanner’s imaging pipeline (plus keeping the old, balky hardware maintained and finding software to drive it), even if it’s theoretically a tiny bit sharper at the margins. The color on those old Coolscans wasn’t close to any modern digital camera, let alone a Fujifilm with the best color science in the business.

Even the top-end Hasselblad Flextight scanners are 3200 dpi (almost identical to the GFX) on larger medium formats, leaving only true drum scanners for slightly more resolution – a great deal more difficult to use than a GFX for a tiny improvement at most. The GFX is about 2000 dpi scanning 4×5”, using all of its 100 MP, but there are very few ways (true drum scanners notwithstanding) of scanning MORE than 2000 dpi out of 4×5”. Yes, a couple of high-end consumer flatbeds CLAIM very high resolutions over 4×5”areas , but there is a lot of cheap glass in the optical path, and rather flimsy film holders to deal with.

Some very expensive professional flatbed scanners with excellent optics can deliver more than 2000 dpi over a 4×5” area, but those are no longer available new, and tend to involve maintaining old, balky hardware, software and interfaces. At best, those old scanners require FireWire connections, and many of them are SCSI only. The somewhat newer Hasselblad/Imacon scanners will do 4×5”, but at around the same resolution as using a GFX. The software for the old pro flatbeds often needs Mac OS versions prior to OS X, or equally ancient versions of Windows, either of which means keeping very old computers running, probably by cannibalizing multiple systems to maintain one in working order. To what benefit? Between the quality of most view camera lenses, variations in flatness of film holders and the inherent imprecision of bellows focusing, it’s a rare sheet of 4×5” film indeed that won’t be fully scanned by a GFX on a copy stand with good light and a good film holder. Sure, Pan-X or Tech Pan on a Sinar monorail with a vacuum back might be an exception, but that’s hardly common. True drum scanners offer even more resolution than the pro flatbeds, but they’re even more of a pain – they almost always require dealing with SCSI and decades-old computers, and they require fluid-mounting film! Again, the extra resolution will primarily be scanning grain – the real detail will be captured by a GFX capture…

One of the big EverSmart flatbeds – they were sold by various companies including Scitex, Creo and Kodak


When you reach 8×10” film, the GFX’s 8736×11648 pixels are only a little over 1000 dpi on the film – and, even with balky film holders and lower-resolving lenses due to the huge coverage needed, there may well be considerably more detail than that on the film – but how are you going to extract it? The Hasselblad/Imacon scanners won’t handle 8×10”, so it will have to be something more complex to use. The big old pro flatbeds mentioned above will resolve well over 1000 dpi over an 8×10” area, and most of them have transparency light sources that large (assuming you can still find a working lamp).


A true drum scanner will easily handle 8×10” (some of them will handle 11×14” and even 16×20” ultra large format film), often with a resolution over 2000 dpi, limited mainly by memory limits on the old computers that drive them. A drum scanner will probably be 20 years old, with original software that requires a computer of the same era. Third-party drivers help, but only let you get as far as driving them with 10 year old computers (SilverFast, the primary third-party system, gave up on drum scanners and the big pro flatbeds around Mac OS Snow Leopard and Windows 7). There are a few firms around that maintain the hardware (and sell refurbished units), and they have at least some supply of parts for these complex machines. They also sell working ancient computers, so they’ll supply the whole package.The other possibility is a chemical print – 8×10” enlargers and enlarging lenses aren’t exactly easy to come by. A GFX “scan” is an easy way to extract a lot of information from 8×10” film, even if it won’t get all of it.

A big Heidelberg drum scanner. It needs a higher than average ceiling for the door to open without hitting the ceiling, and it weighs 500 lbs.
More distance compression – there’s a lot more lake in there than this shot looks like.




The image quality of the GFX 100S and all three of the lenses I have used begs another question. This camera, and these lenses, need to print big. By how much does the GFX’s ideal maximum print size exceed 40×60”? That’s unknown, because the maximum size of true gallery-quality printers is pretty much 44”wide. The maximum size of commonly available mounting boards is 40×60”, and even if one finds 48×96” boards (they exist, but archival quality is a problem, and expensive truck freight is a given), everything else from mounting tissues to acrylic to frames gets rare, expensive or both. Truly huge prints need alternative printing and mounting, which almost always means losing something compared to what’s available from 8×10” to 40×60”.

With the sole exception of Canon’s 60” Pro-6100, printers larger than 44” wide don’t use the standard aqueous inksets we are used to on the smaller printers. Epson does make the 64” aqueous SureColor P20000, but its inkset is quite different from any of the smaller printers. It loses all three of the “kicker” colors that the P9570 and P7570 have (green, orange, violet), but adds an additional gray that no smaller Epson uses. I haven’t used one, but it almost certainly has the Epson “house look”, although in a modified version. I would be very surprised if it ISN’T the best black and white printer Epson makes, Really large aqueous inkjet prints are also notably difficult to mount – papers like Platine are easily damaged even in smaller sizes, and the larger the print, the more careful the handling that is required. Printing on canvas is a partial solution to more durable big prints, being significantly more damage-resistant than most other media. Using a resin or solvent printer on canvas is even more durable, and a great deal cheaper per print than aqueous inkjet canvas, but those printers are larger, more specialized and more expensive than most photographers are likely to own. A monster like that is found in a service bureau, but it is useful to know what they can do because we might send our work out to be printed on one.

Epson claims a unique advantage over Canon and other competitors, in that their PrecisionCore printhead shows up in printers ranging from the little P700 to dye-sublimation monsters eight feet wide. There’s an Epson “house look” that can be printed pretty much every size, and on every type of media. An upcoming article will look at the whole range of PrecisionCore printers I met at Epson’s Carson Tech Center back in March – you can actually make a reasonable (although not perfect) proof on a P900 of what a print will look like eight feet wide on vinyl. I got to play with resin, solvent, UV and direct-to-garment variants of PrecisionCore, and one remarkable thing about them is how close they are to aqueous PrecisionCore. It’s not a perfect match (and the best of the aqueous printers offer the best overall image quality), but it’s relatively close, and it’s an interesting way of making similar prints for many applications. I’ve got the Epson P9570, the largest printer most of us will ever own or even see in person, coming in as a long-term review printer, and I’ll put it in perspective among printers that make even the six foot long, 340 lb P9570 look small. Among them, Epson’s monsters can print on anything, and while you won’t own one, there are plenty of reasons to send certain jobs to them – we’ll look at what happens when you do.

Dan Wells

August 2022

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Dan Wells, "Shuttterbug" on the trail, is a landscape photographer, long-distance hiker and student in the Master of Divinity program at Harvard Divinity School. He lives in Cambridge, MA when not in wild places photographing and contemplating our connection to the natural world. Dan's images try to capture the spirit he finds in places where, in the worlds of the Wilderness Act of 1964, "Man himself is but a visitor". He has hiked 230 miles of Vermont's Long Trail and 450 miles of the Pacific Crest Trail with his cameras, as well as photographing in numerous National Parks, Seashores and Forests over the years - often in the offseason when few people think to be there. In the summer of 2020, Dan plans to hike a stretch of hundreds of miles on the Pacific Crest Trail, focusing on his own and others' spiritual connection to these special places, and making images that document these connections. Over years of personal work and teaching photography, Dan has used a variety of equipment (presently Nikon Z7 and Fujifilm APS-C). He is looking for the perfect combination of light weight, ruggedness and superb image quality.

You May Also Enjoy...

Camera & Technology

Processing Ice and Snow

September 19, 2022 ·

Ignacio Palacios

FacebookTweet Editing Ice and Snow with and NIK Detail Extractor, Auto Curves and Apply Image There is a technique that I frequently use when I


Camera & Technology

Fujifilm and Hasselblad (and Apple), Oh My…

September 10, 2022 ·

Dan Wells

FacebookTweet We are entering what I used to call PhotoPlus season, although there hasn’t been a PhotoPlus Expo since 2019. We lost 2020 and 2021